This November has been Moscow's coldest autumn month since 2002, according to the Russian Hydrometeorological Center.
"The average temperature in the last days of November is -2.1, which is 1.3 degrees below the norm. November has become the coldest in the 21st century so far," a statement from the Center read.
"Taking into account the precipitation in the last three days of November, it will vie for the title of the wettest month since 2012, when 89 mm of rain fell."
Forecasters say that according to preliminary estimates, in Moscow the autumn was 4.6 degrees on average, a degree lower than the average temperature for 1961-1990, and 1.7 degrees below the average temperature for the 1981-2010 period.
This is the second-coolest autumn in the 21st century, after the autumn of 2002 (when it was on average 4.3 degrees). A slightly less cool autumn was in 2014, when the average temperature of the season was 4.9 degrees.