Chelyabinsk region Governor Mikhail Yurevich quit his post on Wednesday, a statement on the Kremlin website said.
President Vladimir Putin has appointed Boris Dubrovsky as acting head of the region, the statement said.
Yurevich was appointed governor in 2010 by then-President Dmitry Medvedev after acting as the mayor of Chelyabinsk, his home city.
The Center for Political Information said that Yurevich was among the worst regional heads in Russia and blamed him for Chelyabinsk's deficit and deteriorating infrastructure, RIA Novosti reported in October.
Dubrovsky was born in the Chelyabinsk region's second largest city, Magnitogorsk, and currently serves as the general director of its metallurgical plant. He met with Putin on Wednesday and was reportedly ordered to pay attention to the region's industry.
Ruslan Gattarov, a senator from the Chelyabinsk region, said that he expects Dubrovsky to participate in the election to retain his post in September.