Russia on Tuesday summoned the Polish embassy's charge d'affaires after Poland closed a school run by the Russian Embassy in Warsaw, domestic news agencies reported.
Poland and Russia have historically had tense relations, which have plummeted even further since the Ukraine offensive.
Russia's RIA Novosti news agency published a video of diplomat Jacek Sladewski entering the Foreign Ministry in Moscow, three days after Warsaw shut a school for the children of Russian diplomats.
Poland seized the school building on Saturday, saying it belonged to the city of Warsaw and was operating without legal basis.
Russia said the move violated international agreements and vowed a tough response.
Kremlin spokesperson Dmitry Peskov said on Tuesday that "nothing good awaits" Russian-Polish ties and accused the Polish authorities of having "their minds captured by Russophobia."
The spat over the 1970s multi-story building has been going on for a year.
Warsaw Mayor Rafal Trzaszkowski said the school had "no diplomatic status and is not protected by any immunity."
Warsaw has for years reported a huge disparity in the number of diplomatic buildings each has in the other country.
Poland, which shares a border with both Russia and Ukraine, is one of Kyiv's staunchest allies against Moscow.