A list ranking the 100 most polluted cities in Russia put Norilsk, Moscow, and St. Petersburg in the top three.
On a positive note, the ratings show that emissions have decreased in 56 cities in the past 2 years, and have increased in only 36, according to data from the state statistics service Rosstat.
Norilsk, an industrial city 2,890 kilometers northeast of Moscow, is by far the worst offender, RIA Novosti reported.
The city releases twice as many air pollutants as second-placed Moscow — 1.95 million tons of emissions yearly compared to Moscow's 995,400 tons.
Industry is responsible for the vast majority of Norilsk's pollution, with car exhaust fumes making up only 0.5 percent of its emissions. In Moscow, on the other hand, car exhaust fumes accounted for 92.8 percent of pollution, compared to 85.9 percent in St. Petersburg.
The top 10 slots were mostly filled by industrial cities involved in metallurgy, oil refinement, and chemical production.