Moscow said Saturday that Kyiv used British long-range missiles to target civilian sites in the eastern city of Luhansk, wounding six children.
The defense ministry said that on Friday evening Ukraine's armed forces had struck two civilian enterprises.
"Storm Shadow air-to-air missiles supplied to the Kyiv regime by Great Britain were used for the strike, despite London's declarations that these weapons would not be used against civilian targets," the ministry said in a statement.
"Nearby residential buildings were damaged. Civilians were injured, including six children," the statement added.
The ministry said a Sukhoi Su-24 jet that carried the missiles and a MiG-29 aircraft had been shot down.
By announcing it would deliver the air-launched deep-strike weapon, Britain became first country to provide longer-range armament to Kyiv. Russia branded the move an "extremely hostile step."