Seventeen countries owe Russia a total of $27 billion, with most of the country’s lending made through arms deals or unreported political loans, according to a tally by Russia’s RBC news website.
The Finance Ministry estimated this year that 25 countries and other legal entities owe Russia $39.4 billion, including through government bonds. Russia classifies data from its export finance and loans program as a state secret.
Belarus remains the runaway leader among Russia’s debtors with $7.5 billion in unpaid loans, according to RBC’s calculations published Monday. Russia declined Belarus’ request to refinance its debts this summer.
Ukraine is Russia’s second-largest debtor, with $3.7 billion owed to its eastern neighbor.
Venezuela owes Russia $3.5 billion, RBC reported. Cuba has borrowed $3.2 billion from Russia, followed by Bangladesh with $2 billion, Cyprus with $1.8 billion, India with $1.1 billion and Yemen with $1 billion.
China, Morocco and foreign state corporations may owe Russia a further $13 billion, RBC reported. The outlet was unable to identify the specific amounts borrowed by each party, as China and Morocco don’t disclose their bilateral creditors and Russian government statistics don’t include loans to foreign state corporations.
RBC’s tally did not include foreign government bonds issued by countries such as the U.S. and Britain that are held by Russia.