Former NBA All-Star Andrei Kirilenko was named president of the Russian Basketball Federation (RFB) on Tuesday.
The 34-year-old Kirilenko, who was unanimously elected by all 215 members who attended the conference, said there was "a deep crisis of trust" within the RFB.
"I see and understand how to concentrate all the basketball powers in the country," he said.
"We need to make serious changes to how the sport is run. I am sure that together we can take big steps forward and put an end to this mess.
"I want there to be at least one person in every family in our country who loves to watch or play basketball," he added.
Kirilenko, who spent a significant part of his career with the Utah Jazz and helped Russia win the 2007 European championship, announced his retirement as a player in June.
Russian teams were banned last month from playing in international tournaments due to government interference in running the RFB.