Police in the Stavropol region said Friday that they found a suicide belt during a sweep and have detained its suspected owner.
Russia's authorities have been tightening security after recent presumed terrorist attacks and persistent Islamist-inspired violence in the turbulent North Caucasus.
Police said they made the discovery using sniffer-dogs while inspecting a horticultural reserve outside the southern city of Stavropol. The belt was examined and its owner later arrested, police said.
A decision on whether to proceed with criminal charges will be made after an expert assessment, police said.
The suspect is said not to be a resident of Stavropol, although his precise origin is unknown.
Russia has in recent weeks been unsettled by apparent acts of terrorism.
In the most recent incident on Wednesday, a double blast rocked two adjacent stores in the republic of Dagestan in the North Caucasus, killing at least at least one and injuring 17 people.
Investigators on Thursday named two militant group members believed to be responsible for the attack.
That came only a week after an apparent suicide bombing attack on a bus in the city of Volgograd that claimed six lives.