Police estimated that the rally, called The Essence of the Times, drew around 1,000 demonstrators, Interfax reported. Organizers said before the event that they had expected up to fifteen times that amount.
The movement's leader, iconoclastic political scientist Sergei Kurginyan, spoke to the crowd from a stage outside the All-Russia Exhibition Center about the need to prevent a Western-backed uprising.
"People...came here to save Russia," he said, Interfax reported.
After speaking, he led the crowd in a song called "If There is War Tomorrow."
The event concluded with participants settling on the goal of creating "USSR 2.0."
Kurginyan spoke at a Feb. 4 rally with a similar theme, held at Poklonnaya Gora in central Moscow. That event drew 140,000 people, by police estimates.