Sports Minister Vitaly Mutko said the country is at risk of being suspended from international swimming competitions following a series of positive doping tests.
Last month, world record-holder Yulia Efimova was banned for 16 months after testing positive for a banned steroid. Two other Russians are suspended after failing drug tests and at least five were banned last year.
The cases come as Russia prepares to host next year's world swimming championships in Kazan.
Mutko told Russian media that "the number of breaches of anti-doping rules in the international arena is on the brink."
He said that "one or two more breaches and the federation could be suspended altogether."
Mutko said the Swimming Federation is one of "several" Russian sports bodies at risk. He did not name any others.