Masked gunmen broke into the home of the chief judge at a Rostov district court, shooting him several times before making their getaway.
The judge, identified on the Myasnikovsky District Court's website as 49-year-old Samvel Manukyan, was shot at least five times in the early hours of Friday morning and later died in a local hospital, police said in a statement.
After causing the judge two serious wounds, the attackers fled the scene in a Nissan Teana, which was parked nearby, police added.
Neither Manukyan's wife nor his 12-year-old son, who were both in the house at the time, suffered injuries.
Investigators have opened criminal cases on charges of murder, robbery and illegal weapons' possession.
Manukyan had headed the Myasnikovsky District Court since 1998, according to legal news agency Pravo.ru.