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. Last Updated: 08/31/2014

Garry Kasparov

Garry Kasparov

Garry Kasparov (Гарри Кимович Каспаров) was born Garry Kimovich Weinstein (Гарри Кимович Вайнштейн) on April 13, 1963, in Baku, Azerbaijan, to an Armenian mother and a Jewish father. Kasparov's father died when he was seven, and he adopted a Russified version of his mother's maiden name, Kasparyan, at age 12.

1980: Won the World Junior Chess Championship

1984-1990: Member of the Communist Party and, from 1987, the Central Committee of the Komsomol youth organization

1984: Youngest ever No. 1 ranked chess player

1985: Youngest ever undisputed World Chess Champion. Kasparov held the title until 1993, when he broke from FIDE to form his own organization, the Professional Chess Association, a move he later regretted.

1997: First world chess master to lose to a computer, IBM's Deep Blue

2005: Retired from professional chess with the highest all-time Elo rating (Elo is a rating system used in chess and other two-player games) after being rated world No. 1 almost continuously since 1986

2005: Founded the United Civil Front with the goal of "preserving electoral democracy in Russia." He became a prominent critic of Vladimir Putin.

2007-present: Helped organize Dissenters' Marches and later Strategy 31 demonstrations

2008-present: Founding member of the pro-democracy Solidarity Movement

2008: Withdrew from presidential run

Kasparov was a leader of the defunct Other Russia Coalition (not to be confused the unregistered Other Russia party led by Eduard Limonov) in the late 2000s.

Although Kasparov is one of the faces of the liberal opposition, he is largely unknown or ignored as a political figure in Russia.

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Kasparov Bid Fails as Chess Federation's Boss Re-Elected

Former world champion Garry Kasparov failed in his bid to oust the eccentric longtime head of the World Chess Federation on Monday in a bitter contest steeped in Russian power plays.

2nd Victory for Yukos Shareholders

The European Court of Human Rights awarded the shareholders of defunct oil giant Yukos $2.6 billion in compensation Thursday, a ruling that has left political and legal analysts split about its significance for Russia's relations with the West.

Ukrainian Chess Champion Joins Team Russia

Ukrainian chess player Kateryna Lagno has left her national team in favor of Russia's, the Russian Chess Federation announced on Saturday.

Duma Passes Law Tightening Control Over Internet Data Storage

Russia's parliament has passed a law to force Internet sites that store the personal data of Russian citizens to do so inside the country.

Russia's Media Watchdog Asks Twitter to Block A Dozen Extremist Accounts

Russia's media watchdog has asked Twitter to block access to a dozen accounts it deems to be "extremist," the agency's head said, as Moscow seeks greater control over Internet sites based beyond its borders.

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